Download free eBooks of classic literature, books and novels at Planet Book. By Rudyard Kipling jungle, is apt to go mad, and then he forgets that he was. Free site book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling. Book Cover. Download. The Jungle Book () is a collection of stories written by Rudyard cotubesina.ml tales in the book (and also those in The Second Jungle Book which followed in.
|Language:||English, Portuguese, Arabic|
|Genre:||Science & Research|
|ePub File Size:||20.60 MB|
|PDF File Size:||12.48 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration needed]|
Free download of The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling. Available in PDF, ePub and site. Read, write reviews Author: Rudyard Kipling. Downloads: Download The Second Jungle Book free in PDF & EPUB format. Download Rudyard Kipling.'s The Second Jungle Book for your site, tablet. RUDYARD KIPLING. The Jungle Book. Retold by. Ralph Mowat. Illustrated by. Kanako Damerum and Yuzuru Takasaki. Jungle Book 13/1/07
Of course, everyone dies, sooner or later. It is natural. It is the First Law of the jungle. But the woman and the man died in a terrible way. So Shere Khan killed them. He did this because they were alone. He did this because he was hungry. Hungry animals kill. This is the Second Law of the jungle. Animals do not understand fire. Before they died, the man and the woman used fire against Shere Khan.
They burned the great tiger.
They burned his paw — his foot — and Shere Khan was angry. He killed them, and then he went away. But the woman and the man died in a terrible way. So Shere Khan killed them. One day in the jungle Shere Khan — the great tiger — killed a man and a woman. He did this because they were alone.
He did this because he was hungry. Hungry animals kill. This is the Second Law of the jungle.
Animals do not understand fire. Before they died, the man and the woman used fire against Shere Khan. They burned the great tiger.
They burned his paw — his foot — and Shere Khan was angry. He killed them, and then he went away. He went away because he was frightened of the fire. We can call her Mother Wolf. Her name was Raksha in the jungle. She was in her home. She gave her milk to her cubs, to her baby wolves.
Suddenly, she heard a noise, outside. But she could not move.
A mother protects her cubs. This is the Third Law of the jungle. Father Wolf went outside. This jungle-child, youthful and energetic yet duly schooled in the codes of the Law, is the alien liberator whose final victory signals the establishment of just rule in the place of an ostensibly corrupt and decrepit Mughal dynasty.
As the rebel Sepoys of looked to Bahadur Shah for leadership, so, during a troubled period. As the British, after , articulated a new imperial order. He is a man-cub among the jungle animals and an uncouth creature among the villagers he later joins.
The frivolous and boyish nature of Mowgli on the one hand and his higher calling to serve the Raj on the other hand drives a wedge in his personality. But the anarchist nature of Mowgli still comes out every now and then. His physical resemblance to monkeys further reinforces his image of a rowdy creature.
It turns the European male into a subject and the Indian village girl into an object. This is how the objectification of the Orient is reinforced and the binary nature of the relations between the East and the West is re-centered.
So much about the contrapuntal discussion of the characters. Along with the role of the characters, the thematic mood of the story also plays a critical role in defining the imperial undercurrents of the narrative.
Similarly, the thematically-grounded violence of The Jungle Book is also very foundational to its colonial scheme. The battle against the monkeys results in their mass killing and the Shere Khan also meets his tragic end in a tactically organized cattle stampede. The stormy fight between Baloo and the Shere Khan also depicts the violence of the story. Violence was a central policy of all the colonizers and they unrestrainedly applied it wherever they felt any real or perceived need for it.
The British Empire was also not unknown for its quick resort to violence. This is evidenced by such bloody episodes as the Jallianwala Bagh massacre and Croke Park massacre Kolsky, British imperial violence usually operated as a collective punishment here evidenced by the indiscriminate killing of the monkeys.
Besides the thematically grounded violence of the story, the interplay of the characters and the setting is also very significant. The jungle can be seen as the efficient and elephantine British colonial machinery in India. With its locales which are not only exotic and exilic but also sensual and surrealist, the book reinforces the distance and otherness of the Orient.
The Jungle Book
The racial stereotyping of the storyline is also visible through its setting i. The story is set in the Indian jungles which symbolize an exotic, timeless, wild primordiality —the jungles are ever green and are home to untamed animals and myriad mysteries. Theorizing Power and Narrativity of the Jungle Book Theorizing power and employing it in the narrativity of imperial discourses has always been essential to the success of colonialism.
This theorization of power is as much discursive as strategic i.
The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling
Arguably it is an offshoot of this discursive narrativity that a Pakistani, an Indian or an African scholar of English literature would read a text like The Jungle Book with an urgency and difference not usually felt in quite the same way by an American, or say, a French scholar.
In that land of inevitability, the building of an Empire itself is a noble calling and work of art to be undertaken by the suave European conquerors.
It is not for nothing that the native Indians are depicted as credulous, rash and juvenile. These natives inherits all the stereotypes attached to the Orient. In fact, in history, the texts like The Jungle Book prove to be the sine qua non of colonial mastery over the colonized in which the natives are destined to be portrayed in a specific light. In the 19th and the 20th centuries, the colonial literature made use of fiction as an archival repository of imperial tropes and subtexts.
Therefore, it is not enough to get hold of the meta-textual intents of such narratives just by giving a pleasure reading to them. The most viable way to deal with the multilayered and much worked over narrativity of the colonial discourses is to have something more than mere textual understanding of these accounts.
Viewing from this perspective, the job of a reader appears to be to go well beyond the apparent world of fictional realities and tropes constructed during the heyday of the British Empire Achebe, The British Empire was obviously no ordinary kingdom. Rather what is being maintained is that imperialism is unimaginable without such works as they provide it with a historico-cultural configuration. They are entwined with it at cultural, linguistic and semiotic levels.
Such literary discourses tend to invoke the ideas of imperialism and relate it to the destiny of the colonized. This is not done in a linear or unproblematic way. Rather the narrativity is turned and twisted and is finally aligned with the contours of the imperial power structure at the heart of which operate the protagonists like Mowgli and Kurtz.
Edward Said makes this point. Said , p. What he is actually taking an issue with is the quasi-Hegelian triumphalism which terms Europe subject and its colonies object.
This dichotomous and mutually exclusive relationship was textually reinforced by the narrative authority of the 19th century realist novel. All of these aspects, one way or the other, touch on the theme of imperialism by reinstating such questions as culture, representation and racism.
Moreover, the British imperialism in India took time in striking its roots. It advanced incrementally and, with every push, it not only took a chunk of land but also added a discursive layer to its imperial literary archive. In the long run this lead to a mighty transition and all this is manifested by the inversion of power relations between the Shere Khan and Mowgli.
The Shere Khan has the upper hand initially but in the end it is Mowgli who prevails upon him and eliminate him. The phrase, as has been hinted above, was used by Kipling to describe the obligations and behavior of a wolf in a pack. So what is the law of the jungle in The Jungle Book? It implies a code of conduct for those who discard human law in favor of the edict might makes right.
This law of jungle is meant for animals, not for humans. Similarly, the colonized were considered by their masters as less than human.
They were represented as exotic beings with an inherent cultural and civilizational inferiority Marriott, The real strength of this law is not moral but pragmatic as it holds sway in condition harder than the Hobbesian state of nature—the jungle houses predators who would rather immediately devour what they kill. Thus in order to live, they have to kill.
It is in contrast to the Hobbesian state of nature in which men can live in peace if they agree to form a government, at least in principle Mansfield, Furthermore, in the world of beasts, Mowgli himself is presented by Kipling as the law incarnate—a law by which a balance is maintained between different species through a ceaseless struggle which can be read as an assiduous labor to buttress the foundations of the Raj.
This struggle can also be seen as a truce-less war between the Whiteman and the beastly Indians. Contrapuntally, we may ask the question whether this war must ever be condemned as evil.
More specifically when it is the only mode available to govern the unruly, then how it can be condemned at all. This leads us to the conclusion that in the quasi utilitarian and Darwinian sense the only viable code for the jungle is the one premised upon brute force and intimidation—an intimidation which is signified by fire See, Hodge, In the same way, the law accords a higher social status to those who are fitter and more ferocious.
Animals which hunt like wolves and snakes are admired while those that scavenge like hyenas and jackals are looked down upon. And lastly those that are prey like deer hardly count at all as their featuring in the narrative is the minimalist. The law of jungle has a clear imprint of Spenserian social Darwinism as the whole premise of the story is a struggle for survival marked by the superiority, strength and invincibility of the imperial power.
The social Darwinism prevalent in the jungle does not admit of communal equality and the wild society remains rigidly hierarchical and authoritarian. At a time when The Jungle Book was being written, the supremacy of the white race was more than a mere claim Loomba, This supremacy was being paraded as a scientific fact—a fact lent all the more credibility by the European colonial and cultural triumphs. Throughout the book, the law painstakingly maintains a distinction between the white men and the rest of the species.
For instance, Rikki the mongoose is instructed as to what he should do if he ever encounters white men Kipling, There is yet another corollary of this law i. In any case, this elaborate bureaucratic officialdom of jungle can be read as a signifier for the vast imperial machinery with built-in notions of efficiency and obedience.
This imperial bureaucracy governs all the communal praxis and is marked by a high degree of specialization in which each species has pre- assigned roles and duties Bivona, and any amount of transgression is not just a crime but also a sin.
Besides, where this ledger of stated laws ends, Kipling proposes Darwinian- Hobbesian tactics: Because of his age and his cussing, because of his gripe and his paw, In all that the Law leaveth open, the word of the Head Wolf is Law Kipling, , p.
Finally every now and then it is not uncommon for the reader to come across such urbane notions of the Victorian era such as cleanliness, prudish conduct, sufficiency of sleep, self-defense, prevention of needless conflict, construction of safe shelter, avoidance of waste, prevention of retribution, etc. All these notions are parts of this law. Conclusion In this study, the researchers aim at showing the colonial subtexts and tropes in the storyline of The Jungle Book in which the master- narratives and the slave-narratives run in a parallel and dialogic way.
The story has clear patterns, representations and themes which can be correlated with the broader contours of the Raj and the meta-narratives of Empire. A contrapuntal reading of The Jungle Book considerably brings such themes and representations to the fore. The researchers have also theorized the narrativity of power which throughout the book holds sway over the imagination of the reader.
Any effort to bridge the gap between these two realms is fore-doomed and this imperial conviction is evidenced by the eventual killing of the Shere Khan and the return of Mowgli to his village for good.
It has also been seen that the discursive power to narrate, or to obstruct other narratives from emerging has been at the root of the prodigious power of the Empire.
Imperialism comes from the Latin word imperium, meaning to command and this command, more than any form of physical coercion, is backed by a benign discursive persuasion enshrined in the canonical literary works.
Neither the miracles of those men of prayer Nor the power of government is the reason for it — For centuries the people have been used to slavery. There is no difficulty about being a master When the people are entrenched deep in slavery Mir, , p.
References Achebe, C. Hopes and impediments. London: Doubleday. Ahmad, A. In theory: Classes, nations, literatures. London: Verso. Ahmed, A. Discovering Islam: Making sense of Muslim history and society. Ashcroft, B. Edward Said, London: Routledge.A mother protects her cubs.
Their names are not important. For instance, Rikki the mongoose is instructed as to what he should do if he ever encounters white men Kipling, These literary discourses and imperial narratives, in fact, coincided with the advent and subsequent triumph of colonialism wherever it spread its tentacles. To this day, he maintains an avid following and reputation as one of the greatest storytellers of the past two centuries.
These natives inherits all the stereotypes attached to the Orient.